International Refugee Day 2019

The Fatal Policies of Fortress Europe: 36,570 Documented Refugee Deaths since 1993
Time for Change!

On World Refugee Day, 20th June, UNITED for Intercultural Action is releasing its yearly update of the List of Refugee Deaths. It is now – once again – more relevant than ever. In September 2015, the pictures of 3-year-old Alan Kurdi from Syria who drowned in the Aegean washed up on a beach with his red shirt and blue shorts, were a shock to many. Nearly four years later, Europe has become fatally used to deaths in the Mediterranean Sea.

Today, the victims of Fortress Europe suffer a silent death. We don’t know most of their names. “N.N” (Nomen Nescio: I don’t know the name) is the most common name on UNITED’s 36,570 – long Refugee List of Deaths. Serious attempts at identification of the dead are made only by isolated scientists’ initiatives, and not by governments. The list continues to get longer every day, and Europe’s extreme neglect towards these deaths by policy becomes clear in denying its victims even the most basic human dignity: a grave with a name.

That cynicism is by no means limited to populist politicians who exploit the human tragedy in order to maximise their power. It has, sadly, arrived in the mainstream discourse. In 2018, renowned German weekly newspaper Die Zeit asked the crucial question: “Should we save them – or should we just leave it?” The discussion of whether it is legitimate to rescue those in peril on the Mediterranean Sea has hit Europe in a time of rising xenophobic sentiment. Italy’s Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, for example, denounced the private search-and-rescue-crews in the waters close to Italy as “pirates”. In that hostile atmosphere, the political pressure on NGO’s who rescue refugees from drowning has fatally succeeded. Death numbers are rising again, most notably on the busy Moroccan-Spanish migration route. Meanwhile, Europe continues to collaborate with Libya to block the departure of Sub-Saharan migrants from the country, and send them back to inhumane and violent camps that have been likened to concentration camps. And there is only one rescue vessel left operating at the main entry route between Libya and Italy. Its name is “Alan Kurdi”.

In previous years the List of Deaths has been successfully used by artists, journalists, researchers and activists. It was published last year in the Guardian and other newspapers in Europe, displayed in a metro station in Barcelona, and on the street in European Cultural Capital Leeuwarden (NL), as well as at Liverpool Biennal (UK) where it was repeatedly vandalized. In June 2019 it is published in the Norwegian newspaper Bergensavisen as part of an ongoing collaboration with artist Banu Cennetoglu, and exposed in Beijing, China, by artist Peng Wu under the name “Arriving Ashore – a memorial for the lives lost in the forceful migrations”. On 20th June the second updated edition of the German book Todesursache Flucht will be published.

UNITED calls on civil society to protest against the fatal policies of Fortress Europe that lead to too many deaths of desperate people looking for safe refuge. No More Deaths! Time for Change!


Notes to editors

About UNITED for Intercultural Action
UNITED for Intercultural Action is the pan-European network against nationalism, racism, fascism and in support of migrants, refugees and minorities. Together with over 550 supporter organisations all around Europe, ranging from local grassroots associations to national and international NGOs, UNITED coordinates campaigns, organises conferences, takes part in projects, produces publications and undertakes advocacy work to protest against discrimination and promote our shared vision for a diverse and inclusive society.

About the UNITED List of Refugee Deaths
Since 1993 UNITED has been monitoring the deadly results of the building of “Fortress Europe” by making a list of the refugees and migrants, who have died in their attempt of entering the “Fortress” or as a result of Europe’s immigration policies. In the period 1993-2019 at least 36,570 refugee deaths can be attributed to the “Fatal Policies of Fortress Europe”. Most probably 1000s more are never found.

The “List of Deaths” summarises information on where, when and under which circumstances they died. On all death cases further documentation is kept in archive. The data are collected through own research, information received from the network organisations in 48 countries and from local experts, journalists and researchers in the field of migration. Compiled in the “List of Deaths” they add up to an impressive listing and a strong campaign statement: No More Deaths – Time For Change!

The UNITED “List of Deaths” has become a key tool for activists, artists, researchers, and journalists dealing with the rights of asylum seekers and refugees.

The UNITED “List of Deaths” can be freely re-used, translated and redistributed, provided UNITED is contacted in advance, the source ( is mentioned and a copy is sent to UNITED.

About 20th June – International Refugee Day
On the 50th anniversary of the Geneva Convention in 2001, the United Nations General Assembly declared 20th June as the World Refugee Day.

UNITED stimulates an annual campaign around this date, aiming to highlight refugee issues from an NGO perspective at all levels: local, national and European. We call on civil society to protest against the fatal policies of Fortress Europe that lead to too many deaths of desperate people looking for safe refuge.

We call upon all organisations to take part in this campaign. Visit the Facebook page for regular updates, news, tips and see “join the campaign” for ideas how to get involved.

About artist Banu Cennetoglu
Thanks to an ongoing cooperation with Istanbul-based artist Banu Cennetoglu (b. 1970, Ankara, Turkey), the List has been published many times in multiple forms, including posters, billboards, newspaper supplements and public screens. See: